The most recent issue of the international Records Management Journal included an article titled Preserving Records in the Cloud written by Jan Askhoj, Shigeo Sugimoto and Mitsuharu Nagamori. The paper, “examines the characteristics of managing records in a cloud computing environment and compares these with existing archiving models, exemplified by the open archival information system (OAIS) reference model.” The paper concludes, “that there are a number of areas where OAIS does not integrate well with cloud computing systems. Based on the findings, a new layered model for a cloud archiving system is defined using the concepts and information types from the OAIS reference model. The proposed model allows the sharing of functionality and information objects by making them available as services to higher layers. The model covers the entire document lifecycle, making archive functionality such as preservation planning possible at an early stage and helping to simplify records transfer.”
Category Archives: Records Management
After the planning stage for implementing an electronic records management program, an organization needs to focus on distributing the message that this implementation needn’t be a huge strain on the organization’s resources. This can be done by focusing on 1 page summaries that are terrifically layered, require attention, and promote Q&A sessions – rather than relying solely on PowerPoint presentations.
For more details, check out this article by Mimi Dionne: http://www.cmswire.com/cms/information-management/an-electronic-records-management-implementation-journal-month-two-018860.php
Follow the planning for implementing an electronic records management program when an organization will need to:
Update the organization’s records retention schedule
Create project management templates
Host status meetings with every functional team in the Information Technology department
Learn Advanced VBA for Excel
Prepare all training materials
Conduct usability training
Prepare and circulate executive-level presentation for peer input
For more details, check out this article by Mimi Dionne: http://www.cmswire.com/cms/information-management/an-electronic-records-management-implementation-journal-month-one-018357.php
The Australian Commonwealth Government has issued a policy directive which requires all Government agencies to transition from reliance on paper for records towards digital records management for efficiency purposes. The National Archives of Australia has issued a range of information about how this could be done. Some of the information relates to:
* Benefits of going digital
* Obtaining senior management support
* Scanning incoming paper
* Reducing paper stockpiles
* Self-assessment of records management capabilities
* Incorporating records management functionality into business systems
* Reviewing business practices to reduce reliance on paper
For more information, view the Digital Transition Policy website at the National Archives of Australia: http://www.naa.gov.au/records-management/digital-transition-policy/index.aspx
The National Archives and Records Administration is requesting comment from federal agencies on proposed new guidance for managing content on shared drives. As stated in the draft bulletin, “A shared drive on its own does not provide the functionality of an automated electronic recordkeeping system such as a DoD 5015.2-STD certified system. If agencies store records on a shared drive, they must implement policies and procedures that provide records management functionality. Because shared drives are not automated electronic recordkeeping systems, records
management functionality requires manual intervention and will be a challenge.”
In 2008 the Utah Department of Administrative Services, Department of Technology Services, and the Division of State Archives published the “Electronic Records Management Business Case.” The goals of the document were to “provide policies, standards, and guidelines for managing electronic records in the state of Utah and provide technical solutions to help manage all formats of electronic records in the state of Utah.”
MoReq (Modular Requirements for Records Systems) has published their Core Services & Plug-in Modules, Version 1.0. As stated in the document, “MoReq2010® aims to provide a comprehensive, but simple and easily understood set of requirements for a records system that is intended to be adaptable and applicable to divergent information and business activities, industry sectors and types of organisation.” It covers system services, classification, metadata, and disposal.
The Information and Records Management Society created a RM Toolkit for Schools back in 2008. They are planning on updating the toolkit soon. While it focuses on assisting public sector schools in complying with the Freedom of Information Act, it has helpful sections that deal with managing e-records, such as email management and creating information management systems.
NARA has a handy online toolkit that provides links to numerous resources discussing the management of e-records.
-The bibliography is divided into specific topical areas including
- general overview material
- projects and case studies
- software and technology
- Cunningham, Adrian. “Good Digital Records Don’t Just ‘Happen’: Embedding Digital Recordkeeping as an Organic Component of Business Processes and Systems.” Presentation, annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, Washington, DC, August 10-15, 2010. http://saa.archivists.org/Scripts/4Disapi.dll/4DCGI/store/PDFs/conf/dc2010/session302-Cunningham.ppt. This presentation discusses the current global situation with regards to managing electronic records. International standards and specifications are listed. There is a focus on twelve guiding principles of good e-record keeping and e-record keeping systems.
- Digital Curation Blog. Retrieved from http://digitalcuration.blogspot.com/As is stated on the blog, it is “inspired by the Digital Curation Centre to discuss issues relating to the curation and long term preservation of digital science and research data.” The blog goes back to 2007 and covers a range of issues relating to institutional repositories, obsolete media, preservation formats, and web preservation.
- Rosenthal, David S. H. (2010) Format Obsolescence: Assessing the Threat and the Defenses. http://lockss.stanford.edu/locksswiki/files/LibraryHighTech2010.pdf This is an interesting article which challenges traditional notions of format obsolescence.
- Zach, L., Peri, M.F. (2010). Practices for College and University Electronic Records Management (ERM) Programs: Then and Now. The American Archivist, 73, 105-128. This article discusses statistics gathered from an NHPRC Electronic Records Fellowship Program which looked at how North American colleges capture, store, organize, and make available electronic records created by their institution. Data was collected in 2005 and in 2009.
- CAMiLEON Project. “camileon.” About the CAMiLEON Project. http://www2.si.umich.edu/CAMILEON/about/aboutcam.html. This website provides basic information, guides, and reports stemming from the CAMiLEON project which is a joint undertaking between the University of Michigan and the University of Leeds. The key areas of the project research are software longevity, emulation, and migration. The project is moving into the areas of user evaluation and the costs of digital preservation.
- Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, CCSDS-650.0-B-1, “Recommendation for Space Data System Standards.” Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), January 2002. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0b1.pdfThis document defines an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) as “an archive, consisting of an organization of people and systems that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a designed community. It meets a set of such responsibilities as defined in this document, which allows an OAIS archive to be distinguished from other uses of the term ‘archive’.” The material being preserved in an OAIS requires long term preservation. The document includes varied models of the different parts of an OAIS such as the ingest model, archival storage model, the data management model, and the preservation planning model.
- “DCAPE Purpose.” Distributed Custodial Archival Preservation Environments (DCAPE). http://salt.unc.edu/dcape/ As stated on the website, “The goal of the DCAPE project is to build a distributed production preservation environment that meets the needs of archival repositories for trusted archival preservation services. The preservation environment builds upon the technologies developed at UNC at the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) and the data storage infrastructure being installed. The preservation environment includes a trusted digital repository infrastructure that is assembled from state-of-the-art rule-based data management systems, commodity storage systems, and sustainable preservation services. The software infrastructure automates many of the administrative tasks associated with management of archival repositories and validation of trustworthiness.” This project is managed by RENCI staff and faculty at SILS/University of North Carolina who are working with archivist partners from state archives, university archives, and cultural archives including the State Archives of California, Kansas, Michigan, Kentucky, North Carolina, New York, and the University Archives at Tufts.
Below are two other resources relating to the DCAPE project:
- Wojcik, Caryn. “Sustainable Preservation Services for Archivists through Distributed Custody.” Presentation, annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, Washington, DC, August 10-15, 2010. http://saa.archivists.org/Scripts/4Disapi.dll/4DCGI/store/PDFs/conf/dc2010/session501-Wojcik1.ppt. This presentation discusses how the DCAPE project was funded by NHPRC in 2008, and will run for 2.5 years at UNC. It defines distributed custodial preservation as, “physical custody of archival collections is distributed outside of the archival repository to a trusted preservation service where the archival repository retains legal custody. The archival repository remains responsible for archival functions, including preservation and access and access to collections is controlled by archival repository.” It discusses the goals of the DCAPE project and how iRODS is being incorporated to enable rule-based automation of archival functions.
- Hou, Chien-Yi. “DCAPE Interface Demonstration.” Presentation, annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, Washington, DC, August 10-15, 2010. http://saa.archivists.org/Scripts/4Disapi.dll/4DCGI/store/PDFs/conf/dc2010/session501-Hou2.ppt. This presentation includes two detailed demonstrations of the DCAPE user interface which is being created at UNC with iRODS. The demos show items being loaded into the virtual loading dock, being moved to the preservation area, having their metadata checked, and then being displayed for a user.
- Department of Defense. (2007, April 25) Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard. Retrieved from http://jitc.fhu.disa.mil/recmgt/p50152stdapr07.pdf This standard serves as one of the leading national and international standards relating to records management and selecting software for the management of records. This standard “provides implementing and procedural guidance on the management of records in the Department of Defense. It sets forth mandatory baseline functional requirements for Records Management Application (RMA) software used by the DoD Components in implementing their records management programs; defines required system interfaces and search criteria that RMAs shall support; and describes the minimum records management requirements that must be met based on current National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) regulations.”
- InterPARES Project. “The Long-term Preservation of Authentic Electronic Records: Findings of the InterPARES Project.” Preservation Task Force, 2002. http://www.interpares.org/book/index.htm This document discusses research findings related to the methods, procedures, and rules of long-term preservation of electronic records and methods for authenticating preserved electronic records. There is an appendix included which discusses the requirements needed for assessing and maintaining the authenticity of electronic records where minimum metadata attributes are listed.
- MoReq Home. “MoReq.” (2009) Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records. Retrieved from http://www.dlmforum.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=901&Itemid=20&lang=en The MoReq requirements have been used throughout the European Union. As stated on the website, “the MoReq specification describes model requirements for the management of electronic records and focuses mainly on functional requirements for electronic records management systems (ERMS).” The requirements “outline the essential elements an ERMS should have to ensure that records are properly managed, can be accessed at all times, are retained for as long as they are needed and are properly disposed of once the obligatory retention and disposition period has expired.”
- National Archives of Australia. “Digital Recordkeeping.” Guidelines for Creating, Managing and Preserving Digital Records, May 2004. http://www.naa.gov.au/Images/Digital-recordkeeping-guidelines_tcm2-920.pdfThe stated purpose of this publication is to provide, “comprehensive guidance to Australian Government agencies on creating, managing and preserving digital records.”
- National Archives of Australia. “Records Management.” Specifications for Electronic Records Management Systems Software, February 2006. http://www.naa.gov.au/Images/ERMSspecifications_tcm2-1007.pdf These specifications were developed specifically to assist government offices and departments create software to capture and manage electronic records. The specifications “detail the basic requirements of electronic records management systems (ERMS) software for making and keeping records of business activities.”
PROJECTS AND CASE STUDIES
- Library of Congress. “Digital Preservation.” Digital Preservation: National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, A Collaborative Initiative at the Library of Congress. http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/index.html This website includes links to news, events, tools, and resources all related the LC’s efforts to preserve digital content. There is even a link to the Library of Congress Preservation/NDIIP Newsletter, which provides up to date information of the progress of their current projects.
- Library of Congress. “Partners.” Digital Preservation Outreach and Education (DPOE). http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/partners/dpoe/dpoe.html As stated on the website, “The mission of the Digital Preservation Outreach and Education (DPOE) initiative is to establish and sustain a national outreach and education program to encourage individuals and organizations to actively preserve their digital content.” DPOE serves as one of the many LC digital preservation partners.
- Library of Congress. “Sustainability of Digital Formats Planning for Library of Congress Collections”. Digital Formats Web site. May 2007. http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml. This website provides information about digital content formats and the sustainability issues surrounding varied digital formats.
- National Archives and Records Administration. Electronic Records Archives (ERA). http://www.archives.gov/era/ This website provides an introduction to the ERA project and links to project documentation which contains system design information. There are also links to ERA presentation updates for NARA senior staff which discuss current problems, possible solutions, and the size (in TB) and how many millions of objects are in the ERA.
- National Archives and Records Administration. The National Archives Center for Advanced Systems and Technologies (NCAST). http://www.archives.gov/ncast/ This website provides an introduction to the NCAST. NCAST serves as a partner under the ERA Research Program, and it addresses three major needs with NARA, “Expand the scope of the advanced technology research to a broader, NARA-wide perspective, inaugurating a new applied research program that brings the best new technologies and methods into NARA, and transferring knowledge that we have acquired by partnering with other NARA offices to identifying the specific types of expertise and skills that staff need to do their work.” Click here http://www.archives.gov/ncast/research-projects.html to see a list of their partner research projects which include iRODS, and other tools which can be used in the accessioning and preservation of e-records.
- Ohio Electronic Records Committee. “Guidelines for Managing Web Site Content.” Table of Contents. 2002. www.ohiohistory.org/ohiojunction/erc/web/Templates/webguidelines.pdf These guidelines were created to “raise awareness of and provide and explain the currently available requirements, guidelines and best practices for managing and preserving web resources that meet the criteria for records as defined by the Ohio Revised Code.” The guidelines discuss identifying records which exist online and the need to capture these resources. The guidelines also discuss retention schedules and the need to make retention periods for records which exist on the web.
- Utah State Archives. “Division of Archives and Records Service.” Electronic Records. 2010. http://www.archives.state.ut.us/recordsmanagement/ERM/electronic-records-links.html This is a great resource as it not only includes links to business case summaries and state procedures for managing e-records, but it also contains links to other helpful resources and links and information about what other states are doing regarding the preservation of e-records. Here is the link to their Electronic Records Management Business Case: http://www.archives.state.ut.us/recordsmanagement/ERM/ERMBusinessCase.pdf
- AIMS Blog: Born digital archives. Retrieved from http://born-digital-archives.blogspot.com/ This blog is published by the An Inter-Institutional Model for the Stewardship of Digital Collections (AIMS) project partners. As stated on the blog, “The AIMS project, funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, represents a co-operative strategy among four partner institutions, to energize collection development in the area of born-digital papers, and to empower librarians and archivists in the management of born-digital assets. The four partners in the project led by the University of Virginia are Stanford University, University of Hull and Yale University.” The blog discusses the project and links to other helpful resources.
- Forstrom, Michael (2009). Managing Electronic Records in Manuscript Collections: A Case Study from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. The American Archivist, 72, 460-477. http://archivists.metapress.com/content/b82533tvr7713471/fulltext.pdf As stated in the abstract, “This paper reports on the management of electronic records in manuscript collections at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University. The paper looks at the InterPARES project, specifically the Authenticity Task Force Requirements for Assessing and Maintaining the Authenticity of Electronic Records and assesses how they can be used as a model for maintaining the authenticity of copies of electronic records in manuscript collections.
- FutureArch Blog. Retrieved from http://futurearchives.blogspot.com/ A blog maintained by the Bodleian Electronic Archives and Manuscripts (BEAM) at Oxford University. As stated on the blog, it is “a place for sharing items of interest to those curating hybrid archives & manuscripts.”
- Prom, C. J., Swain, E.D. (2007). From the College Democrats to the Falling Illini: Identifying, Appraising, and Capturing Student Organization Websites. The American Archivist, 70, 344-363. http://archivists.metapress.com/content/c8121767x9075210/fulltext.pdf As stated in the abstract, “Based on findings from a multi-component case study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, this article analyzes the documentary value of student organization websites and discusses ways in which archivists can use offline browser technology to capture extracurricular activity more fully.” The authors tested the following web harvesting; the trial version of Offline Explorer Enterprise, a trial version of the midrange Black Widow, and the open source HTTrack.
- Prom, Chris. Practical E-Records Blog. Retrieved from http://e-records.chrisprom.com/ As stated on the blog, it “is intended to share information concerning a research project I am directing at the Center for Archive and Information Studies (CAIS) at the University of Dundee. The project aims to evaluate software and conceptual models that archivists and records manager might use to identify preserve, and provide access to electronic records.”
- The University of Maryland. (2008). Electronic Records Working Group: Final Report and Recommendations. College Park, MD. Not widely published, “This report summarizes the deliberations and findings of an ad hoc Electronic Records Working Group, convened as a joint effort of the Department of Business Services, the Office of Information Technology, and the University Libraries, to begin the efforts to gain control of the critical electronic documentation created by the University of Maryland.”
- Tufts University. “Tufts Accessioning Program for Electronic Records (TAPER).” First Interim Narrative Report. August 15, 2008. http://dca.tufts.edu/downloads/RE10005-08_interim-report_2008-08-14.pdf This report discusses the current NHPRC Expansion Grant project at Tufts “to design, develop, and implement machine-readable submission agreements and records creator records.”
Below is another resource relating to the Tufts University project:
- Martzahl , Veronica. “Distributed Custodial Archival Preservation Environments Project The Tufts Perspective.” Presentation, annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, Washington, DC, August 10-15, 2010. http://saa.archivists.org/Scripts/4Disapi.dll/4DCGI/store/PDFs/conf/dc2010/session501-Martzahl3.ppt This presentation focuses on the Digital Custodial Archival Preservation Environment (DCAPE) project and how it is has been implemented at Tufts.
- The Society of American Archivists. “Campus Case Studies.” http://www.archivists.org/publications/epubs/CampusCaseStudies/casestudies.asp
- This website includes free access to reports produced by university archivists who are working on solutions for born-digital records. Of note is the following article: Pyatt, Tim. (April 2008) Managing Public Affairs Records in the Digital Age. SAA Campus Case Studies, Case 6. Retrieved from http://www.archivists.org/publications/epubs/CampusCaseStudies/casestudies/Case6-Pyatt-FINAL.pdf This case study deals with how Duke University archivists created new workflows to take in, accession, process and access a collection of electronic records from the Office of Public affairs.
SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Alfresco. Alfresco.com. 2010. http://www.alfresco.com/ According to the Alfresco website, “Alfresco was founded in 2005 by John Newton, co-founder of Documentum, and John Powell, former COO of Business Objects. Alfresco is the leading open source alternative for enterprise content management (ECM).” Alfresco offers document management, web content management, records management, collaborative content management, and content repository services.
- Archive-It. Welcome to Archive-It.http://www.archive-it.org/ Archive-It is a service focused on preserving web content. It is currently being used by a number of academic institutions who are moving forward with web archiving projects. As stated on the website, “Archive-It, a subscription service from the Internet Archive, allows institutions to build and preserve collections of born digital content. Through our user-friendly web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, and browse their archived collections. Collections are hosted at the Internet Archive data center and are accessible to the public with full-text search.”
- Archivematica Open Archival Information System. “Main Page.” What is Archivematica? September 2010. http://archivematica.org/wiki/index.php?title=Main_PageArchivematica is open source software developed in Canada. As stated in the website, “Archivematica is a comprehensive digital preservation system. Archivematica uses a micro-services design pattern to provide an integrated suite of free and open-source tools that allows users to process digital objects from ingest to access in compliance with the ISO-OAIS functional model. Archivematica uses METS, PREMIS, Dublin Core and other best practice metadata standards. Archivematica implements media type preservation plans based on an analysis of the significant characteristics of file formats.” The most current version of the software can be downloaded from the website. Follow this link to a presentation at NARA by Peter Van Garderen, President and System Archivist at Artefactual Systems, Inc titled “Archivematica: Creating a Comprehensive Digital Preservation System.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czQx4sCO88k
- Blacklight. “What is Blacklight?” http://projectblacklight.org/ This website describes blacklight as “a free and open source ruby-on-rails based discovery interface (a.k.a. “next-generation catalog”) especially optimized for heterogeneous collections. You can use it as a library catalog, as a front end for a digital repository, or as a single-search interface to aggregate digital content that would otherwise be siloed. Blacklight uses solr, an enterprise-scale index for its search engine. Blacklight features faceted browsing, relevance based searching (with the ability to locally control the relevancy algorithms), bookmarkable items, permanent URLs for every item, user tagging of items.” It can be downloaded from the site.
- Blue Squirrel. “Products.” Grab-a-Site vs. WebWhacker. 2010. http://www.bluesquirrel.com/products/grabasite/gasvsww.html Grab-a-site and WebWhacker are web harvesting tools used by institutions that are harvesting and archiving web content. You can download, evaluate, and purchase software from this site.
- Davis, Daniel. “Hydra.” The Hydra Project. August 2010. https://wiki.duraspace.org/display/hydra/The+Hydra+Project As stated on the website, “The Hydra Project is a collaboration between the Universities of Hull, Stanford and Virginia working in partnership with Fedora Commons. The Hydra Project grew out of a meeting held at the University of Virginia in September 2008. The three universities shared a need to develop an end-to-end, flexible, extensible, workflow-driven, Fedora application kit. Hydra’s ultimate objective is to effectively intertwine its technical and community threads of development, producing a community-sourced, sustainable application framework that provides rich and robust repository-powered solutions as an integrated part of an overall digital content management architecture. Such solutions can meet the distinct needs of digital library, institutional repository, discipline repository, research, preservation and publishing workflows.” You can download the beta 1 release of Hydrangea, which was released in 2010.
- DuraSpace. “Introducing DuraSpace.” Open technologies for durable digital content. http://duraspace.org/index.phpDuraSpace open source technology portfolio includes the DSpace open access repository application and the Fedora open repository platform, as well as the DuraCloud. It is focused on the long term durability of digital content, and as is stated on the website, “DuraSpace software and services are used worldwide as solutions for open access, institutional repositories, digital libraries, digital archives, data curation, virtual research environments, and more.”
- iRODS. “Project Page.” IRODS: Data Grids, Digital Libraries, Persistent Archives, and Real-time Data Systems. August 2010. https://www.irods.org/index.php/IRODS:Data_Grids,_Digital_Libraries,_Persistent_Archives,_and_Real-time_Data_Systems As the website states, “iRODS™, the Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System, is a data grid software system developed by the Data Intensive Cyber Environments research group. The iRODS system is based on expertise gained through a decade of applying the SRB technology in support of Data Grids, Digital Libraries, Persistent Archives, and Real-time Data Systems. iRODS management policies (sets of assertions these communities make about their digital collections) are characterized in iRODS Rules and state information. At the iRODS core, a Rule Engine interprets the Rules to decide how the system is to respond to various requests and conditions. iRODS is open source under a BSD license.” Users can download the current version of the software from the website. There are many links to tutorials and helpful power point presentations that help explain iRODS.